Practice Question: What is the nature of religious change among tribal communities? Illustrate with two examples from colonial and post independence?
Approach: Introduction; Briefly mention about religious beliefs and ways of tribals using thinkers, explain the change and support it with examples; Conclusion.
These movements are directed towards freeing their land from all those who exploited them culturally and economically.
TYPES OF TRIBAL MOVEMENTS
Cameron classified them in 4 groups:
1. REVISIONARY – desires specific changes by modifing the existing customs, improving an purifying the culture or social order and eliminating some institutions.
2. REACTIONARY – seeks to bring back the s -called good old days. Also called revivalistic .
3. CONSERVATIVE – organised to obstruct the current changes and seeks to maintain status quo .
4. REVOLUTIONARY – aims at replacing he whole of the culture or social order with another more progressive one.
TRIBAL MOVEMENTS IN INDIA
Most of the social movements among tribaIs in early India had their origins in religious
upheavals like Buddhism and Vaishnavism. Movements surged against oppressing landlords moneylenders, forest officials, etc. in Bihar, Bengal, Orissa and Central Indian States.
After independence, tribal movements can be classified into 3:
1. Movements due to exploitation of outsiders. (Santhals and Mundas)
2. Movements due to economic exploitation. (Gonds in Madhya Pradesh and Mahars in Andhra Pradesh).
3. Movements due to separatist tendencies. (Nagas and Mizos)
PROBLEMS FACED BY TRIBALS
1. Uneconomical handholdings leading to low crop yield.
2. Low workforce in tertiary and secondary sector occupations.
3. Low literacy rate.
4. Considerable amount of land transferred to non-tribals.
5. British policy of exploitation.
6. Exploitation by moneylenders, landloads, outsiders, etc.
7. Almost 90% are landless.
8. Lives in sparsely populated hills with little communication.
9. Unfriendly Indian neighbours creating anti-India sentiments.
10. Insurgency and demand for separate statehood.
11. Politicization of tribal problems.
12. Loss of tribal culture and identity.
FACING THE PROBLEMS – 3 ALTERNATIVES ADOPTED BY TRIBALS
1. To exist side by side with the majority. (Bhils and Meenas)
2. To absorb itself in the dominant group. (Oraon and Rhond)
3. To secede and seek political independence. (Nagas and Mizos)
MEASURES FOR TRIBAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA.
1. Constitutional provisions and safeguards. (Article 164, Article 244 and Article 342)
2. Representation in Legislatures and Panchayats.(Artida 330 and Article 332)
3. Tribal Advisory Council.
4. Commissioner for the Scheduled Tribes and Castes.
5. Education, scholarship and economic opportunities.
6. Special schemes and programmes.