Practice Question: Why have we started using another category of tribes called the Particularly Vulnerable Groups (PVTGs) Why are they so called ? (10 Marks) (Socio 2017)

Approach : Introduction; Highlight why PVTGs stand distinct, go on about PVTGs and their present situation, list a few PVTGs; Conclusion



The particularly vulnerable tribal groups (PVTGs) in general are socially as well as economically very backward in the sense that they have little access to the resources for their development, low rate of literacy, relatively small population size, dwindling in numbers and some of the groups are at the verge of extinction. State-wise list of PVTGs shows that there are seventy-five communities, which are distributed primarily in four states: Bihar, Odisha, Chhattisgarh and West Bengal, but on the other hand, a tribe enjoys the status of PVTG in one state but not in another state. 



The Dhebar Commission (1960-1961) stated that within Scheduled Tribes there existed an inequality in the rate of development. During the fourth Five Year Plan a sub-category was created within Scheduled Tribes to identify groups that considered to be at a lower level of development. This was created based on the Dhebar Commission report and other studies. This sub-category was named “Primitive tribal group”. The features of such a group include a pre-agricultural system of existence, that is practice of hunting and gathering, zero or negative population growth, extremely low level of literacy in comparison with other tribal groups. Groups that satisfied any one of the criterion were considered as PTG. At the conclusion of the Fifth Five year plan, 52 communities were identified as being a “primitive tribal group”, these communities were identified on the basis of recommendations made by the respective state governments.



1. Andhra Pradesh

1. Bodo Gadaba
2. Bondo Poroja
3. Chenchu
4. Dongria Khond
5. Gutob Gadaba
6. Khond Poroja
7. Kolam
8. Kondareddis
9. Konda Savaras
10. Kutia Khond
11. Parengi Poroja
12. Thoti
2. Bihar (including Jharkhand)

13. Asurs
14. Birhor
15. Birjia
16. Hill Kharia
17. Korwas
18. Mal Paharia
19. Parhaiyas
20. Sauria Paharia
21. Savar
3. Gujarat

22. Kathodi
23. Kotwalia
24. Padhar
25. Siddi
26. Kolgha
4. Karnataka 27. Jenu Kuruba
28. Koraga
5. Kerala

29. Cholanaikayan
(a section of Kattunaickans)
30. Kadar
31. Kattunayakan
32. Kurumbas
33. Koraga
6. Madhya Pradesh (including Chhattisgarh)

34. Abujh Marias
35. Baigas
36. Bharias
37. Hill Korbas
38. Kamars
39. Saharias
40. Birhor
7. Maharashtra

41. Katkaria
42. Kolam
43. Maria Gond
8. Manipur

44. Marram Nagas
9. Orissa

45. Birhor
46. Bondo
47. Didayi
48. Dongria-Khond
49. Juangs
50. Kharias
51. Kutia Kondh
52. Lanjia Sauras
53. Lodhas
54. Mankidias
55. Paudi Bhuyans
56. Soura
57. Chuktia Bhunjia
10. Rajasthan

58. Seharias
11. Tamil Nadu

59. Kattu Nayakans
60. Kotas
61. Kurumbas
62. Irulas
63. Paniyans
64. Todas
12. Tripura

65. Reangs
13. Uttar Pradesh (including Uttarakhand) 66. Buxas
67. Rajis
14. West Bengal

68. Birhor
69. Lodhas
70. Totos
15. Andaman & Nicobar Islands

71. Great Andamanese
72. Jarawas
73. Onges
74. Sentinelese
75. Shom Pens



  • Pre-agricultural level of technology
  • Low level of literacy
  • Economic backwardness
  • A declining or stagnant population.



The Scheme for Development of Primitive Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs), came into effect from April 1, 2008. The Scheme defines PVTGs as the most vulnerable among the Scheduled Tribes and the Scheme therefore seeks to prioritise their protection and development. It identifies 75 PVTGs. The Scheme seeks to adopt a holistic approach to the socio-economic development of PVTGs and gives state governments flexibility in planning initiatives that are geared towards the specific socio-cultural imperatives of the specific groups at hand.



Whichever the group is enlisted as PVTGs, all may be included irrespective oftheir state boundaries. It will also be better if a common development agency will take care of them in case of inter-state distribution of the group, since the preference as well as working pattern are different in different states. The core area of their habitat also given priority for development and in this manner their migration to other areas will be minimized which will be beneficial impact for them. It is also felt that the critical time-bound evaluation and monitoring are essential for the economic upliftment of the PVTGs. The proper utilization of the development strategies by the community people according to the needs and requirements should be there; otherwise, their actual situation will remain same as before or even become grimmer. There should be bottom up approaches in terms of the specific PVTG rather than existing top down approaches for their development. The execution of programmes from paper to people also needs to be done quickly.



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