LAND REFORMS

 

Practice Question: Analyse the major components of Land Reform Acts. Show their effectiveness in curbing rural
inequality. (10 Marks) (2016 Socio Paper 2)

Approaching the Question: Introduction on land reforms; Body on what constitutes land reforms, write their benefits in reducing rural inequality; Conclusion.

 

Land reforms refer to institutional measures directed towards altering the existing pattern of ownership and management of land.


LAND REFORMS IN INDIA
Phase I
1. Abolition of zamindari.
2. Tenancy Laws (Security of tenure, decrease in rent, ownership rights to tenants.
3. Land ceiling laws.
4. Placing the above laws in 9th schedule.
5. Land acquisition acts by states such as Rajasthan and Punjab in 1953.
6. Bhoodan and Gramdan movements to encourage voluntary giving up of excess land.
Phase II
1. Green Revolution
2. Right to property abolished.


OBJECTIVES OF LAND REFORMS
1. Restructuring of agrarian relations to achieve an egalitarian structure.
2. Elimination of exploitation in land relations.
3. Actualisation of the goal of ‘land to the tiller’ .
4. Improvement of socio- economic conditions of poor
5. Increase in agricultural productivity and production.
6. Infusing equality in local institutions.

 

SUCCESS OF LAND REFORMS – REASONS
1. Political will to insert 9th Schedule and abolishing right to property from list of Fundamental Rights.
2. Many states like West Bengal and Kerala implemented it thoroughly.
3. Increasing awareness about land rights.
4. Advent of various NGOs, kisan Sabhas and Co-operatives.
5. Green Revolution and consequent prosperity of farmers.
6. Political mobilisation during freedom struggle based on agrarian issues.
7. Judicial backing and progressive interpretations of constitutional reforms.


FAILURE OF LAND REFORMS
1. Unclear legislations.
2. Lack of strong political will.
3. Bureaucratic obstacles.
4. Lack of coordination in implementation.
5. Huge number of litigations related to land reforms.
6. Mainly only rich farmers benefitted.


WAY FORWARD
1. Effective administrative machinery.
2. Effective implementation.
3. Update and digitise the land records.
4. Simplify legal methods.
5. Reducing political interference.

 

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